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Youth Sports Profile: Baseball and Softball


Updated August 08, 2014

Young t-ball players learn baseball basics
Erica Greis

Is this all-American classic a good match for your child?

The basics: "A baseball or softball game is played by two teams who alternate between offense and defense. There are nine players on each side. The goal is to score more runs than the opponent, which is achieved by one circuit of four bases that are placed on the diamond," explains Scott Kendrick, About.com's former baseball expert.

Age kids can start: 4 or 5 (tee ball); 7 or 8 (coach-pitch or player-pitch teams).

Skills needed/used: Teamwork and sportsmanship; strength; eye-hand coordination; sport- and position-specific skills such as pitching, fielding, and running.

Best for kids who are: Social/team-oriented; patient and attentive enough to cope with baseball's slower pace.

Season/when played: Spring and summer (elite teams or those in warmer climates may play year-round).

Team or individual? Team.

Levels: Little League has a series of levels based on age and ability: Tee Ball (for 5- to 6-year-olds, or up to 8 years old in some areas); Minor and Major Leagues (for 9- to 12-year-olds), Junior League (for ages 13 and 14), Senior League (for ages 14 to 16), and Big League (ages 16 to 18).

PONY (Protect Our Nation's Youth) Baseball and Softball also several age-grouped levels of teams. PONY uses a narrower age grouping to try to form teams in which players’ size and ability are similar.

Both boys and girls can play, and both boys and girls can also play softball. Scholastic teams are also common, with the familiar junior varsity and varsity set-up. Exceptional athletes can go on to play professional baseball or softball.

Appropriate for kids with special needs: Yes (outdoor play may pose challenges for kids with severe allergies or asthma). Little League runs a Challenger division especially for kids with mental and physical disabilities. Teams are set up according to ability, rather than age, and players can participate in one of three levels: tee-ball, coach-pitch or player pitch.

In the Miracle League, kids with disabilities play on a special field with a rubberized surface (which is easier for wheelchairs and kids in walkers to navigate).

Fitness factor: Varies. Baseball can be a slow-paced game, and some players, especially younger ones, may spend a lot of time lingering in the outfield and not getting much physical activity. As kids grow, play becomes more aggressive and athletic.

Equipment: Glove (also called mitt) for fielding balls, batting glove, batting helmet, cleats, uniform. Catchers use special protective gear such as face masks and shin guards.

Costs: Minimal for beginning players; can be much higher for older or elite players, especially those on travel teams. On such teams, costs to play can soar as high as $6,000 per season, not counting lodging, gas, etc.

Time commitment required: As with most youth sports, time commitment grows exponentially as players rise up the ranks to elite or travel teams. Beginners may have just one practice and/or game per week, while more accomplished athletes will practice several days a week and devote nearly every summer weekend to games and tournaments.

Potential for injury: Medium to high (even though baseball is not a contact sport). Softer balls (called "safety" or "RIF," for "reduced injury factor" balls), often used by younger players, reduce the risk and severity of head injuries. Breakaway bases (also called safety-release bases) greatly reduce the risk of ankle sprains and other injuries caused by players sliding into bases. Beginning in 2008, Little League mandated used of breakaway bases for all levels of play.

Just like their major-league counterparts, young players can suffer an overuse injury if they throw too many pitches. Coaches and parents need to make sure junior pitchers' arms get plenty of rest. Get a tip sheet on preventing baseball or softball injuries from the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine.

How to find a program:

Associations and governing bodies:

If your child likes baseball, also try: Cricket (for international flavor), kickball, racquet sports.

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